Simple Summaries

The Iliad


Simple Summary by Sarah Frank

Simple Summary of the Iliad


Book 1

·       The Greeks were trying to get into Troy for 10 years

·       Apollo shot arrows and made them all sick and die

·       Agamemnon is told he has to give Chryseis back

·       Agamemnon tells his people to go steal Briseis from Apollo

·       Achilles tells Thetis to go tell Zeus to help the Trojan cause because he is SALTY

o  His woman has been taken and he is shamed

o  Agamemnon was dumb to humiliate Agamemnon in front of everyone

o  Achilles wants to prove that he is important and that Agamemnon should not cross him

·       Thetis goes and asks Zeus to help the Trojans win

·       Hera finds out Zeus is hatching a plan

·       Hephaestus is worried about his mother with all the gods fighting too

·       Hera has to go sleep with Zeus to calm things down


Book 2

·       Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon, telling him to arm the Greeks

·       Reverse psychology

·       All the Greeks run away (technically sail but)

·       Athena is like Odysseus, what the heck?

·       They line up and there is a description of who is in what boat


Book 3 and 4

·       Hector is disgusted by the Greeks, the Greek are laughing at Paris

·       Paris is like, let’s fight it out for Helen and whoever wins is the better man

o  “"Who on earth could blame them? Ah, no wonder / the men of Troy and Argives under anus have suffered / years of agony all for her. for such a woman.”

·       Paris v Menelaus (if Menelaus wins, Helen goes back to the Greeks, if Paris wins, Trojans keep her)

·       Helen weaves with red fabric (symbolic of bloodshed?)

·       Helen calls herself a whore

·       Helen points out Odysseus (short, stocky guy) and describes him as shorter than Agamemnon but really tricky

·       Helen knows all the Greeks

·       Helen stands on the wall with Priam and Priam asks who all the leaders are

·       They pick stones and the larger one gets to throw a stone first

·       They dress Paris

·       They fight

o  Menelaus drew his sword with silver studs / and hoisting the weapon high, brought it crashing down / on the helmet ridge but the blade smashed where it struck

·       Menelaus grabs Paris who is being choked by the chinstraps

o  “the braided chin-strap holding his helmet tight / was gouging his soft throat-"

·       Menelaus would have won but Aphrodite comes to save Paris

o  She wraps him in swirls of mist and puts him in a bedroom

·       Helen and Aphrodite duel

o  Helen: “Never set foot again on Mount Olympus, never suffer for Paris, protect Paris. for eternity ... until he makes you his wedded wife-that or his slave.”

o  “Aphrodite rounded on her in fury: / "Don't provoke me-wretched, headstrong girl! /Or in my immortal rage I may just toss you over, / hate you as I adore you now-with a vengeance.”

·       Menelaus is just standing there and is shot but Hera saves him

o  “the tip of the weapon grazing the man's flesh, / and dark blood came spurting from the wound.”

·       “"My Argives, never relax your nerve, your fighting strength! Father Zeus, I swear, will never defend the Trojans,

·       First kill: Antilochus kills a Trojan captain

·       Fight fight fight

o  Achaeansand Trojans mauling each other there like wolves, leaping, hurtling into eachother. man throttling man.

o  "Upand at them. you stallion-breaking Trojans! / Never give up your lust for waragainst these Argives”

o  no man who waded into that work could scorn it any longer, / anyone still not speared or stabbed by tearing bronze / who whirled into the: heart of all that slaughter not

o  That day ranks of Trojans, ranks of Achaean fighters / sprawled there side-by-side, facedown in the dust.


Book 5

·       As the battle rages, Pandarus wounds the Achaean hero Diomedes.

·       Diomedes prays to Athena for revenge, and the goddess endows him with superhuman strength and the extraordinary power to discern gods on the field of battle. She warns him, however, not to challenge any of them except Aphrodite.

·       Diomedes fights like a man possessed, slaughtering all Trojans he meets.

·       When Aeneas’s mother, Aphrodite, comes to his aid, Diomedes wounds her too, cutting her wrist and sending her back to Mount Olympus.

·       Aphrodite’s mother, Dione, heals her, and Zeus warns Aphrodite not to try her hand at warfare again.

·       When Apollo goes to tend to Aeneas in Aphrodite’s stead, Diomedes attacks him as well. This act of aggression breaches Diomedes’ agreement with Athena, who had limited him to challenging Aphrodite alone among the gods.

·       Apollo, issuing a stern warning to Diomedes, effortlessly pushes him aside and whisks Aeneas off of the field.

·       Aiming to enflame the passions of Aeneas’s comrades, he leaves a replica of Aeneas’s body on the ground. He also rouses Ares, god of war, to fight on the Trojan side.

·       With the help of the gods, the Trojans begin to take the upper hand in battle. Hector and Ares prove too much for the Achaeans; the sight of a hero and god battling side by side frightens even Diomedes.

·       The Trojan Sarpedon kills the Achaean Tlepolemus. Odysseus responds by slaughtering entire lines of Trojans, but Hector cuts down still more Greeks. Finally, Hera and Athena appeal to Zeus ,who gives them permission to intervene on the Achaeans’ behalf.

·       Hera rallies the rest of the Achaean troops, while Athena encourages Diomedes. She withdraws her earlier injunction not to attack any of the gods except Aphrodite and even jumps in the chariot with him to challenge Ares. The divinely driven chariot charges Ares, and, in the seismic collision that follows, Diomedes wounds Ares.

·       Ares immediately flies to Mount Olympus and complains to Zeus, but Zeus counters that Ares deserved his injury.Athena and Hera also depart the scene of the battle.


Book 6

·       One of the people begs for Menelaus’s mercy

·       line 63,Agamemnon says, “So soft, dear brother, why? Why such concern for enemies?”

·       Greeks normally strip them of their armor but do it later so they can keep killing

·       Hector is told to go to Athena’s shrine, get a robe, put it on Athena’s statue, and beg her to save them from Diomedes

·       “Hector shouted out to his men in a piercing voice, "Gallant-hearted Trojans and far-famed allies! 130 Now be men, my friends, call up your battle-fury! Till Ican return to Troy and tell them all, the old counselors, all our wives, to pray to the gods and vow to offer them many splendid victims."”

·       Theano(his mom) takes care of Hector, tries to give him wine, but Hector is like nooo I have to fight

·       Hector tells his mom to go to Athena’s shrine, bring a robe, sacrifice peppers, and beg Athena

o  “Now shatter the spear of Diomedes!”

o  “Athena refused to hear Theano’s prayers.”

·       Helen calls herself a b*tch to Hector

·       “Zeus planted a killing doom within us both, so even for generations still unborn we will live in song.” -Helen

·       Hector is like, I got to go and help the Trojans!

·       Andromache lost her parents and her brothers

·       “tall Hector nodded, his helmet flashing: ‘All this weighs on my mind too, dear woman. But I would die of shame to face the men of Tray and the Trojan women trailing their long robes if I would shrink from battle now. a coward.’”

·       Hector prays to Zeus that his son will be like him (strong, brave, ruling Troy)

·       At some point Glocous trades his shield because he’s just that good of a fighter


Book 7

·       Hector v Ajax

·       They toss spears but nothing happens and then go to fight with swords

·       Both sides pull them apart and the gods instill a truce

·       Nestor(the oldest Trojan warrior) asks the Greeks for time to bury the dead


Book 8

·       Zeus brings a storm and the Greeks go AH and retreat

·       Hector is looking for Nestor but Diomedes takes them both and Hector chases

·       The Greeks built a trench and a wall

·       The Trojans are heading to the wall

·       Hector drives the Greeks behind their fortifications, all the way to their ships

·       Zeus tells the gods to stop interfering (scares Hera and Athena)

·       That night, the Trojans, confident in their dominance, camp outside their city’s walls, and Hector orders his men to light hundreds of campfires so that the Greeks cannot escape unobserved.

·       Nightfall has saved the Greeks for now, but Hector plans to finish them off the next day.


Book 9

·       The Greeks need Achilles to come back in order to win

·       Odysseus is the most persuasive

·       Ajax almost defeats Hector

·       The tide turns and the Greeks are being driven to their ships

·       They want to bribe Achilles and convince him to fight with them

·       Agamemnon is like noooo I’m better than him

·       Achilles wants glory and victory for than anything else

·       Odysseus tries to convince him but Achilles says no

·       Achilles is like, Helen is not that special and I could have any woman

o  Achilles is the only warrior that recognizes it’s stupid

o  "Mother tells me, the immortal goddess Thetis with her glistening feet, that two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, 500 my journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies ... true, but the life that's left me will be long, the stroke of death will not come on me quickly.”

·       Agamemnon wants to send a spy to the Trojan side (they send Odysseus and Diomedes)

·       Meanwhile, the Trojans have their own spy (Dolon)

·       Odysseus and Diomedes see Dolon running and race after him

·       Dolon tells them Hector is holding counsel and that they don’t have guards because they’re cocky, Dolon tells them where everyone is sleeping

·       Odysseus and Diomedes kill Dolon and steal horses


Book 11:

·       The next morning, Zeus rains blood upon the Achaean lines, filling them with panic; they suffer a massacre during the first part of the day. But, by afternoon,they have begun to make progress.

·       Agamemnon, splendidly armed, cuts down man after man and beats the Trojans back to the city’s gates.

·       Zeus sends Iris to tell Hector that he must wait until Agamemnon is wounded and then begin his attack.

·       Agamemnon soon receives his wound at the hands of Coon, Antenor’s son, just after killing Coon’s brother. The injured Agamemnon continues fighting and kills Coon, but his pain eventually forces him from the field.

·       Hector recognizes his cue and charges the Achaean line, driving it back. The Achaeans panic and stand poised to retreat, but the words of Odysseus and Diomedes imbue them with fresh courage.

·       Diomedes then hurls a spear that hits Hector’s helmet. This brush with death stuns Hector and forces him to retreat.

·       Pari sanswers the Achaeans’ act by wounding Diomedes with an arrow, thus sidelining the great warrior for the rest of the epic.

·       Trojans now encircle Odysseus, left to fight alone. He beats them all off, but not before a man named Socus gives him a wound through the ribs. Great Ajax carries Odysseus back to camp before the Trojans can harm him further.

·       Hector resumes his assault on another part of the Achaean line. The Greeks initially hold him off, but they panic when the healer Machaon receives wounds at Paris’s hands. Hector and his men force Ajax to retreat as Nestor conveys Machaon back to his tent.

·       Meanwhile, behind the lines, Achilles sees the injured Machaon fly by in a chariot and sends his companion Patroclus to inquire into Machaon’s status.

·       Nestor tells Patroclus about all of the wounds that the Trojans have inflicted upon the Achaean commanders. He begs Patroclus to persuade Achilles to rejoin the battle—or at least enter the battle himself disguised in Achilles’ armor. This ruse would at least give the Achaeans the benefit of Achilles’ terrifying aura.Patroclus agrees to appeal to Achilles and dresses the wound of a man named Eurypylus, who has been injured fighting alongside Ajax.


Book 12

·       We learn that the Achaean fortifications are doomed to be destroyed by the gods when Troy falls. They continue to hold for now, however, and the trench dug in front of them blocks the Trojan chariots.

·       Undaunted, Hector, acting on the advice of the young commander Polydamas, orders his mento disembark from their chariots and storm the ramparts. Just as the Trojans prepare to cross the trenches, an eagle flies to the left-hand side of the Trojan line and drops a serpent in the soldiers’ midst.

·       Polydamas interprets this event as a sign that their charge will fail, but Hector refuses to retreat.

·       The Trojans Glaucus and Sarpedon now charge the ramparts, and Menestheus, aided by Great Ajax and Teucer, struggles to hold them back. Sarpedon makes the first breach, and Hector follows by shattering one of the gates with a boulder.

·       The Trojans pour through the fortifications as the Achaeans, terrified, shrink back against the ships.


Book 13

·       Zeus, happy with the war’s progress, takes his leave of the battlefield.

·       Poseidon, eager to help the Achaeans and realizing that Zeus has gone, visits Little Ajax and Great Ajax in the form of Calchas and gives them confidence to resist the Trojan assault. He also rouses the rest of the Achaeans, who have withdrawn in tears to the sides of the ships.

·       Their spirits restored, the Achaeans again stand up to the Trojans, and the two Aeantes (the plural of Ajax) prove successful in driving Hector back.

·       When Hector throws his lance at Teucer, Teucer dodges out of the way, and the weapon pierces and kills Poseidon’s grandson Amphimachus.

·       Asan act of vengeance, Poseidon imbues Idomeneus with a raging power. Idomeneus then joins Meriones in leading a charge against the Trojans at the Achaeans’ left wing. Idomeneus cuts down a number of Trojan soldiers but hopes most of all to kill the warrior Deiphobus. Finding him on the battlefield, he taunts the Trojan, who summons Aeneas and other comrades to his assistance. In the long skirmish that ensues, Deiphobus is wounded, and Menelaus cuts down several Trojans.

·       Meanwhile, on the right, Hector continues his assault, but the Trojans who accompany him, having been mercilessly battered by the two Aeantes, have lost their vigor. Some have returned to the Trojan side of the fortifications, while those whore main fight from scattered positions.

·       Polydamas persuades Hector to regroup his forces.

·       Hector fetches Paris and tries to gather his comrades from the left end of the line—only to find them all wounded or dead. Great Ajax insults Hector, and an eagle appears on Ajax’s right, a favorable omen for the Achaeans.



·       Nestor leaves the wounded Machaon in his tent and goes to meet the other wounded Achaean commanders out by the ships. The men scan the battlefield and realize the terrible extent of their losses.

·       Agamemnon proposes giving up and setting sail for home. Odysseus wheels on him and declares this notion cowardly and disgraceful.

o   Odysseus calls him a disaster

·       Diomede surges them all to the line to rally their troops.

·       As they set out, Poseidon encourages Agamemnon and gives added strength to the Achaean army.

·       Hera spots Zeus on Mount Ida, overlooking Troy, and devises a plan to distract him so that she may help the Achaeans behind his back. She visits Aphrodite and tricks her into giving her an enchanted breastband into which the powers of Love and Longing are woven, forceful enough to make the sanest man go mad.

·       She then visits the embodiment of Sleep, and by promising him one of her daughters in marriage, persuades him to lull Zeus to sleep. Sleep follows her to the peak of Mount Ida; disguised as a bird, he hides in a tree.

o   Sleep wants Pasithea

·       Zeus sees Hera, and the enchanted band seizes him with passion. He makes love to Hera and, as planned, soon falls asleep.

o   He was very quickly overcome with loss

o   Zeus lists all the women he’d slept with but says he wants her even more

o   Hera convinces him to go to his bedroom so no one can see

o   Zeus wraps them in a cloud so no one can see

o   Then Zeus is zonked out

·       Herathen calls to Poseidon, telling him that he now has free rein to steer theAchaeans to victory.

·       Poseidonregroups them, and they charge the Trojans.

·       Inthe ensuing scuffle, Great Ajax knocks Hector to the ground with a boulder, andthe Trojans must carry the hero back to Troy.

·       WithHector gone, the Achaeans soon trounce their enemies, and Trojans die in greatnumbers as the army flees back to the city.

o   “Kneesof every Trojan shook with fear”

·       Zeuswakes up and tells Hera she created a disaster

o   “Uncontrollable Hera—you and your treachery”

o   He threatens to hit her with anvils and torture her

·       Herais like nooo wasn’t me

o   “Earth,be my witness”

·       analysis: the scene does provide some comic relief. Once again, it is striking how issues oflife and death in the mortal world are so often determined by petty feuds in the godly realms. The decisive turn in the battle results from Zeus’s libido and Aphrodite’s gullibility, as well as Hera’s indignant mischievousness.


Book 15:

·       they threw a rock and hit Hector haha sucker

·       Zeus is angry


Book 16(turning point):

·       Patroclus tells Achilles that it would be a good idea to fight with Achilles’s shield so they think it’s him

·       Achilles is like, just don’t fight Hector

·       Patroclus fights Hector anyway and dies

o  “If only he had obeyed Achilles' strict command he might have escaped his doom, the stark night of death. But the will of Zeus will always overpower the will of men”

o  “Patroclus never saw him coming, moving across the deadly rout, shrouded in thick mist and on he came against him and looming up behind him now”

·       Achilles is upset his bestie died

·       Achilles goes after Hector and kills him and lets his body rot

·       Achilles violated rules and Paris gets to kill him


Book 17:

·       Nestortells Achilles that Patroclus is dead

·       A dark cloud of grief comes and Achilles goes crazy (throwing ashes, tearing his hair)

·       Thetis, Achilles’s mom, sooths him

·       Achilles calls himself a useless deadweight and that he is unequal to the gods

o  “If only strife could die from the lives of gods and men and anger that drives the sanest man to flare in outrage bitter gall, sweeter than dripping streams of honey, that swarms in people's chests and blinds like smoke just like the anger Agamemnon king of men 130 has roused within me now”

·       Achilles wants revenge

o  “Let bygones be bygones. Done is done. Despite my anguish I will beat it down, the fury mounting inside me, down by force. But now I'll go and meet that murderer head-on, that Hector who destroyed the dearest life I know.”

·       Iristells Achilles just to stand in the battlefield and the Trojans will be scared

·       When Achilles yells, the Trojans’s chariots turn around and leave the ditch

o  Some of their fighters were killed, trampled by chariots

·       The Greeks bring Patroclus’s body back

·       They clean and bathe the body

·       Achilles is like, let’s fight but Odysseus is like, the troops are hungry and tired, we aren’t ready

·       Achilles is like no I’m not eating or drinking

o  “I'd drive our Argives into battle now. starving,famished, and only then, when the sun goes down, lay on a handsome feast-oncewe've avenged our shame.”

o  “You talk of food? I have no taste for food-what I really crave is slaughter and blood and the choking groans of men!"

·       Odysseus says SNACK TIME and they eat a boar or pig

·       Athena drops nectar and ambrosia into Achilles so he wouldn’t perish of hunger

·       Achillesgets ready for fighting (perfect description of hero)

o  Only he could hold his spear

o  He has talking horses?


Book 20:

·       Apollo is trying to convince Aeneas (Trojan) to fight Achilles

·       Hera vs Zeus as usual

·       Aeneas lines up vs Achilles but instead of fighting, they boast and trash talk

·       Achilles throws his sword and strikes Aeneas’s shield and Aeneas gets scared

·       Gods interfere to save Aeneas

o  Mist Achilles, pull out Aeneas

·       Achilles goes crazy on the Trojans

o  “brains splattered”

·       Achilles just killed a ton of people

o  Swords in one ear and out the other

o  split livers

o  pulled out guts

·       Achilles split the Trojans into two




Book 21

·       Lycao nbegs for forgiveness

·       Achillesis like, “no, fool!”

·       Achilles will let no Trojan go

·       Achilles is navigating the river and is chased by a giant wave

·       Achilles is like ahhhh I hate this I wish I was dead

·       Hera tells Hesphetus to set everything on fire, shrinking the river

·       Priam is standing on the walls and looks down at Troy. It’s a massacre

·       Priam says to spread the gates

·       Priam knows Achilles won’t stop


Book 22

·       Apollo taunts Achilles

o  You still don't know that I am immortal, do you?

·       Achilles is like, stop it meanie

o  Achilles shouted in mid-stride, "You've blocked my way, you distant, deadly Archer. deadliest god of all

·       King Priam calls himself an old broken man and said his dogs would eat him if he died

·       Hector was still fixated on his anger

·       Hector knows Achilles will kill him but doesn’t want to hide

o  He runs around the Trojan walls

·       Blah blahblah

·       Achilles throws his spear at Hector but misses, Athena sends it back to him

·       Hector threw a spear and missed so he knew his time had come

o  His friend wasn’t there to help

·       Hector knows he is going to die but wants to with glory

o  in some great clash of arms that even men to comewill hear of down the years!"

·       Achillesis looking for one vulnerable place to strike since Hector has Achilles’s armorthat he took from Patroclus

·       Achillesgoes for the throat

·       Hector’slast words are begging Achilles to give his body to friends and family insteadof letting the dogs devour him

·       Achillestells him to stop begging

o  “my fury would drive me now to hack your fleshaway and eat you raw”

o  “The clogs and birds will rend you-blood and bone”

·       All the Greeks come up and stab the body

·       Hector’s mother, Hecuba, screams when she sees the body and his father is screaming too

o  Sad times

o  “Now you go down to the House of Death, the dark depths of the earth. and leave me here to waste away in grief. a widow lost inthe royal halls-and the boy only a baby. the son we bore together, you and I so doomed”

o  His mother is Andromache I think?


Book 23

·       Games(like the Olympics)


Book 24

·       The gameshave ended

·       Apollo warded off any corruption on Hector’s body

·       Achilles is so upset and rides around with Hector’s body in his chariot

·       Apollo is also upset and goes to Zeus and asks what is wrong with him

·       Zeus is like “I loved Hector but there is no way Priam can sneak in there around Achilles”

·       Zeus summons Thetis to Olympus to organize a deal: Zeus will send Priam to Achilles, Achilles will give the body for ransom

o  Says the immortals have been feuding over Hector’s body

o  Zeus will give Achilles safety if Thetis tells Achilles the gods are angry with him because he has Hector’s body and won’t give it up

o  Zeus also tells Thetis to tell Priam to bring Achilles “gifts to melt his rage”

·       Thetis tells Achilles that she knows he doesn’t have long to live and that the gods are angry he has the body

o  She suggests he take ransom for the dead

o  Achilles is like okay sure

·       Zeussends Iris, the messenger goddess, to Priam

o  Priam wants the body back to have a funeral

o  Hermes will help get Hector’s body back

o  Priam is told to go alone but don’t be afraid because Hermes will guide him

·       Priam tells Hecuba he’s going to get their son back and Hecuba is like “no, DUMMY”

o  “you have a heart of iron!”

·       Hecuba says she wants to eat Achilles raw (vengeful)

·       While Priam is packing the wagon, his cowardly sons are trying to take the ransom materials

o  “Get to your work! My vicious sons— my humiliations!”

·       Priamprays to Zeus and Zeus hears the prayer

·       Hermesdisguises himself and helps Priam get to Achilles’s camps

o  He tells Priam that no birds/dogs have eatenHector and that his body has not decayed yet

o  Priam is like YAY cool beans

·       Everyoneis asleep except Achilles

·       Hermestells Priam that he can’t go in to Achilles because that would be unfair

·       Priamslips past everyone and kneels down to Achilles, praising him

o  He kisses his hands – the same hands that killed his son

o  “The majestic king of Troy slipped past the rest and kneeling down beside Achilles, clasped his knees and kissed his hands, those terrible, man-killing hands that had slaughtered Priam's many sons in battle.”

·       Achilles sees Priam and is like oOoOoOo

·       Priam prays to Achilles and basically is like “your dad gets to see you succeed and live but I fathered hero sons that are all DEAD. Hector is all I had left and you killed him while he protected Troy. I need him back, please accept my ransom and take pity on me.”

o  "I have endured what no one on earth has ever done before; I put to my lips the hands of the man who killed my son"

·       Lil crysesh: Priam “weeps freely for Hector” and Achilles cries for Patroclus/hisfather

o  “Those words stirred within Achilles a deep desireto grieve for his own father.”

·       Achillesfeels Priam’s pain and feels pity

o  “You have a heart of iron”

o  “the gods live free of sorrows”

·       “When Zeus dispenses gifts from the jar of sorrows only, he makes a man an outcast”

·       Achilles says: “you lorded over once, you excelled all men, old king, in sons and wealth. But then the gods of heaven brought this agony on you- 640 ceaseless battles round your walls, your armies slaughtered. You must bear up now. Enough of endless tears, the pain that breaks the spirit. Grief for your son will do no good at all. You will never bring him back to life sooner. you must suffer something worse.”

o  Basically, he says Priam had everything one secondand nothing the next

·       Priamalso begs Achilles not to destroy Troy

·       Achillesis like, “slow your roll, pal. You’re not in the position to argue.”

·       The maidsoil and clean the body before they put the body in Priam’s wagon

·       Achilles apologizes to Patroclus

o  “Feel no anger at me, Patroclus. if you learn even there in the House of Death-I let his father have Prince Hector back. He gave me worthy ransom”

·       They have a meal but Priam says he is tired and needs to rest

·       Achilles asks how long it will take to bury him and that he will hold off the Greek army until then

·       Priam asks for 12 days (9 to mourn, 3 to bury/burn)

·       Cassandra (his daughter) sees Priam returning with Hector’s body and announces it to everyone

·       All the Trojans run out the gates to “greet” Hector then mourn him for a while

·       Andromache(Hector’s daughter) says, “Oh my husband ... cut off from life so young! You leave me a widow, lost in the royal halls-and the boy only a baby, the son we bore together, you and I so doomed. I cannot think he will ever come to manhood. Long before that the city will be sacked, plundered top to bottom! Because you are dead, her great guardian, you who always defended Troy.”

o  They know the Greeks will destroy Troy now that Hector is gone

o  “to me most of all you've left the horror, the heartbreak!”

·       Hecuba (Hector’s mother) says, “Hector, dearest to me by far of all my sons. . . and dear to the gods while we still shared this life and they cared about you still, I see, even after death.”

o  She knows the gods revered him because he was a true Homeric hero.

·       Helen (her brother in law through Paris) says, “And so in the same breath I mourn for you and me, my doom-struck. harrowed heart! Now there is no one left. in the wide realm of Troy, no friend to treat me kindly all the countrymen cringe from me in loathing.”

o  She also says that Hector never mocked her and always defended her: “never once did I hear from you a taunt, an insult. But if someone else in the royal halls would curse me, one of your brothers or sisters or brothers' wives trailing their long robes, even your own mother not your father, always kind as my own father why, you'd restrain them with words, Hector, you'd win them to my side”

·       Bye Hector

o  “At last, when young Dawn with her rose-red fingers shone once more, the people massed around illustrious Hector's pyre”

o  “And so the Trojans buried Hector breaker of horses.”